Network+ Exam Tutorial: Network Interface Cards (NICs)

dedThe NIC is the device, or card, that gives the host a physical connection to the network.  The NIC is generally an internal device, but one that can be removed and replaced with a different NIC.  NICs are considered Physical layer devices and work at Layer 1 of the OSI model.

Most issues involving NICs occur before the device is even added to the network – because the purchaser didn’t do their research.  All NICs are not created equal.  Some are for Ethernet networks, some for Token Ring, and speed capabilities vary as well.   Don’t assume a given vendor’s NIC is going to fit your device and give you the results you want.  A quick visit to the vendor’s website and a few minutes looking up NIC specifications can save you a lot of trouble later on.

One more NIC warning – take your time when you’re installing a new NIC.  Make sure the device is off, and make sure you’re properly grounded by connecting the grounding strap to your wrist.  Otherwise, you can send static electricity into places on the host where it’s only going to cause damage.

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Lost Wax Casting Process

23Lost Wax Casting is known as Cire Perdue in French. It is a process in which an artist’s sculpture is used to cast bronze. The Lost Wax Casting method is also known as Investment Casting in the modern industrial world. This is a very ancient method used for casting small bronze sculptures, but today it is used to make many different artifacts and the process varies from foundry to foundry. Today this developed method of Lost Wax Casting is used to make articles like fine jewelery, show pieces, dental restoration, a few specific industrial parts and also some machine tools.

Process of Lost Wax Casting:

Rough Sculptor making: A creative artist makes an original sculptor or mold or an artwork by using raw material like wax, plaster of Paris or clay. A mixture of oil based clay and wax is preferred as these materials retain their softness.

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Where To Get A Custom Hard Hat?

20A hard hat has been used to protect workers from impact of falling objects, debris, and electric shocks. Hard hats are used for a variety of purposes and ranges from the mining, construction industry, sports like baseball and even by defense personnel. The manufacturers design custom hard hats to meet the requirements of each industry and try and keep the costs low. A few companies even ask manufacturers to design the hard hats that have logos, particular colors etc. or accessories attached to the hard hat to serve better when on the job.

A number of accessories that are used quite commonly are ratchet style headgear, bracket adapters, Goggle Retainers, reflective decals, chin straps, etc. Each of these accessories improve the safety performance of the helmet and improves the workers protection when on the job. If a company is look to design custom hard hats for their employees there are plenty of places where they can be availed online. These offers are quite tempting, a few websites even have online wizard that allows the customizations to be made as per to the company requirements.

One website promotes manufacturing of custom hard hats in the shape of cowboy hats in various colors. All that needs to be done is go the order page, pick the hat style required, select the color, quantity and provide the artwork you want on the hard hat. Similarly another website offers hard hat prints that are also called the “freedom Series”. They advertise these custom hard hat designs to be a way for hard hat wearers to show their patriotism. Each of the hard hats are have excellent finish and and meet the requirements of ANSI Z89.1 2003 for a Class E helmet (Type 1).

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Reverse Osmosis Process in Manufacturing

19The Reverse Osmosis water purification process is applied in several different industries to improve water quality. Water purified via reverse osmosis, is higher in quality, which allows the user to increase efficiency in their manufacturing process. Reverse osmosis is a highly effective and relatively simple process, using a membrane and pressure, to store for later or immediate use.


The Reverse Osmosis process begins with pre-filtration of the source water. Pre-filtration allows large particulates and contaminants in the water to be easily removed before reaching the membrane used in the RO process. By filtering, the shelf life of the semi-permeable membrane employed by the RO unit is increased through the prevention of clogging.

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How to Buy Carpet Cleaning Machines

18Whether you are starting a new carpet cleaning business or expanding an existing one. Learning the facts, before you buy a carpet cleaning machine, can allow you to make an informed decision, that will affect your bottom line for years.

• What Do You “Have To Have” To Clean Carpet?

The optimum conditions for proper carpet cleaning are:

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Polymers The Passage Through Time

17What is Polymer

Think of polymer as the interlinking of many units. It can be likened to the paper garland made of interlinked pieces of papers. Only in the case of polymers, the interlinking units are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and/or silicon molecules. Each link of the chain is called the “mer” or basic unit, hence the name polymer.

Polymers are thus long chains of repeating chemical units, or monomers. The chemical structures of the resultant molecule may be linear, cyclic or branched. When one monomer is linked to other monomers of its type, the resultant product is termed a homopolymer. Polyethylene, polystyrene and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are some homopolymers.

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Hydrographic Surveying Equipment

16Hydrographic survey equipment is used to help people to gather information about the waters that are navigable around the globe. This then helps to ensure that the main ships, boats, yachts and liners that travel the seas, oceans, rivers and lakes of this world can do so safely.

Mainly this equipment is used for surveying navigable waters, but it can also be used in relation to marine navigation which helps us to understand better the state of the sea floor and the ways in which it is changing.

However this kind of equipment is mostly used today by offshore oilfield companies. They use it to inspect the sea floor during the initial stages when they are considering where place these oilfields. They will also use it through out the time the oilfields are located where they re to carry out regular inspections of the infrastructure surrounding the rigs.

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The Use of Fluorochemical Compounds in Organic Chemistry

15Generally, the major uses of fluorochemical compounds fall into three major categories at the turn of the 21st century. The first are the rather stable halocarbon compounds used in medicine such as several types of inhalation anesthetics for anaesthesia. A very major industrial use is in the form of heat tolerant and inert synthetic oils and metalworking lubricants. However, there are many fluorochemicals and halocarbon chemicals that are used extensively, albeit carefully, in organic (meaning carbon containing) chemistry. The unique nature of fluorine, even among other halogen elements, grants halocarbon fluoro compounds unique properties that are indispensable in organic chemical work.

Since the discovery of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from calcium fluoride and sulphuric acid in the 17th century, it has been well known to generations of chemists that certain fluorochemical compounds have very unusual properties. The etching of glass has been performed commercially with HF since the 18th century. Despite being a weak acid, it has an unparalleled ability to corrode silicon and calcium. Much of the pure and quite toxic elemental fluorine (F) is produced from HF by electrolysis.

Trifluoroacetic Acid (TFA) is another very commonly used halocarbon compound. TFA is a relatively simple organic molecule and is a colorless liquid that is a powerful carboxylic acid in solution. It can be produced by “electro-fluorinating” plain old acetic acid. Though similar to the much more familiar acetic acid (better known as the business end of vinegar), it is a strong acid in this form, stronger than acetic acid by at least 3 orders of magnitude.

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What is Sheet Metal Assembly?

14This is the process of joining two or more separate components into a finished product. These components can be made of any variety of metal including steel, copper, plated materials, aluminum, or whatever metal best suits the project at hand.

There are numerous methods for assembling sheet metal, and what method is preferred depends on the materials being assembled, the function of the finished product, the environment the product is being installed into, and the desired durability of the finished, assembled product.

Welding is a very common technique used to assemble sheet metal. Multiple kinds of welding have been developed as the metals industry has grown and evolved, and the selection of welding technique relies heavily on the kind and size of the materials being used. Arc welding, oxy-fuel welding, resistance welding, laser beam welding, and electron welding are the primary types of welding being used today. Arc welding uses an electrical current to create a bond between materials.

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Dock Plates

12If you are in need of loading dock equipment, but do not feel the need for the maximum weight capacities of a dock board, consider purchasing dock plates instead. Dock plates are great for a wide variety of loading dock applications. They are perfect for lighter docking and therefore, great for smaller loading dock businesses. Still not sure if this is what you need? Read on for more information.

Dock plates are available in high quality aluminum or steel. They offer capacities from 1,500 to 12,000 lbs. This is a great way to determine if a dock plate is all you need. If you are not in need of a board that will support of the weight of more than 12,000 lbs, then you should select a dock plate. Having bigger loading dock equipment than you need is just a waste of money and storage space.

Still not sure if you can go for a dock plate instead of a dock board? Dock plates are recommended for non powered dock loading applications. This means if you don’t use fork lifts or other powered dock loading equipment in your loading practices, then you can make do with a dock plate instead of a dock board. A dock plate will easily hold manual loading equipment securely and safely.

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Yes You Can Do That With Plastic

11When you think of what you can do with plastic, maybe your credit cards come to mind. If I talk about nylons, your first thought is probably about women’s hosiery. As exciting as that would be, there is a whole side to plastics you might not think about very often.

For those who are old enough to remember, think about the automobiles that were coming out in the late 1970’s and 1980’s. I was less than impressed with what auto manufacturers were selling us back then. As they began using more plastics, most of us rightfully perceived it as cheap because these plastics were not good replacements for conventional methods.

In those days, the U.S. government was mandating reduced vehicle weight, increased fuel efficiency, and emission standards. It was trial by fire because manufacturers were not yet ready. The result was that almost any impact would basically destroy one of these more delicate vehicles compared to their resiliency in earlier decades.

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Industrial Maintenance Lubricants Industrial Supplies Guide

10Lubricants are a substance that sits between two moving surfaces to reduce wear and friction on the moving parts. Maintenance Lubrication is used in anything that has a moving part from a computer hard disk drive to an airplane and beyond.

Lubrication can be either liquid or non-liquid. Liquid lubricants are often made of 90 per cent oil base and 10 per cent additives. Most often the oil that is used in industrial maintenance lubricants are mineral oils, which are petroleum fractions. Other synthetic oils and liquids can also be used such as flurocarbons and silicone. The additives to the industrial maintenance lubricants help to reduce the friction and wear, disperse heat that is caused by friction, increase the viscosity of the lubricant, reduce oxidation and contamination. Some of the most common additives in industrial maintenance lubricants are metal deactivators, corrosion and rust inhibitors, anti-oxidants, anti-foaming, demulsifying or emulsifying compounds and others that help to reduce wear and friction in the moving parts as well as reduce pressure and increase viscosity.

The non-liquid industrial maintenance lubricants often include grease, powders, Teflon tape, ball bearings, roller bearings or air bearings.

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Woolen Products Can Be Protected From Shrinking

9We are right in the middle of the winter season. Everywhere it’s snowy and cold. People remain confined to their homes or offices wearing their favorite sweater and other woolen accessories to stay warm through out the day. Some prefer bonfire which is kindled in their garden or even in the confines of the living room. As this is also the season prone to various flues. So its natural for the people to remain protective for every one these days are aware of the famous saying ‘Prevention is better than cure’.
Yes indeed people try to protect themselves from any harsh environmental conditions.

One thing that is often seen is that we will go any extent to protect our body but go harsh on their branded sweaters. Most often just as other clothes we tend to dip the woolen product in warm waters only to find them sans the original size. Now this is a matter of worry if we have paid some good bucks to get that woolen fabric.

Well I can say that this is not the case anymore. More and more companies are producing enzymes that can help your favorite sweater to remain in its original size even after multiple washes. Now let me give a short scientific explanation for this process. Wool fibers are composed of keratin proteins bundled into micro fibrils. The fibrils are wrapped in a natural scaly cuticle. When wool is washed, the scales interlock, preventing the fibers from moving freely. This interlocking prevents the fabric from retaining its original size.

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Machining Companies

8To serve the purpose of various mechanical and manufacturing firms there are a large number of machining companies that carry out different machining techniques. This article will run you briefly through the kinds of services that are available through machining companies. One of the most sought after kinds of machining techniques is CNC machining. Machining companies that provide CNC machining services make use of machines that are high speed, repeatable and capable of being programmed. These machines are able to function even when they are unattended. This allows the machining company to manufacture parts or jobs both quickly as well as efficiently. There are also machining companies that have production machining services. Such machining companies have the capacity to give an output of large scale production. They are run with the use of a variety of machining services.

If precision is a major criterion for your machining requirements then you can turn to micro machining companies. The micro machining services that are offered by such companies are able to perform precision machining on very small parts to integrate complete detail. Machining is not just limited to metals and their alloys. There are also machining companies that specialize in plastic machining. These plastic machining services are used to fabricate or shape parts and components made of a variety of plastic as well as thermoplastic materials. If you need machining for extremely hard substance then you will be pleased to know there are also a large number of machining companies that specialize in ultra hard machining services. They can handle machining for extremely hard materials like ceramics, stainless steel, quartz and even sapphire. Thus no matter what your machining requirements might be you can find a machining company that can deliver based on your specific requirements.

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Welding Helmets to Protect your Eyes

7Welding helmets are one of the most common accessories for someone engaged in welding. Indeed, the popular vision of the welder would not be complete without the helmet. Our national mythology includes the image of Rosie the Riveter and her welding sisters wearing welding helmets and protective face plating. But, what should you know about welding helmets before acquiring and using them? What common questions should you ask concerning welding helmets?

The first question to ask is what is the lens shade, and which one should be used for eye protection? A common misconception is that the lens shade number equates to the amount of protection given to the eyes. These people think that the higher the number, the more protection provided. Not so. The number, much like sunglasses, indicates the darkness provided the shade and should be used to select the most comfortable shade. Most welding experts suggest selecting a shade that lets you see the weld puddle most clearly and the one that helps you the most when welding.

The second common question is, that self-darkening helmets don’t start to darken until the welding arc is fired, giving a split second without apparent protection. Will this brief period lead to eye damage? The answer is that high quality helmets with auto darkening shades provide protection from both ultra violet and infrared radiation, even when the helmet is not yet activated.

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Khadi-The Pride Of India

6Khadi is an Indian fabric. Khadi is also known by another name ‘Khaddar’. It is made by spinning the threads on an instrument known as ‘Charkha’. During pre-independence era the movement of khadi manufacturing gained momentum under the guidance of father of nation Mahatma Gandhiji. This movement of khadi manufacturing and wearing started as to discourage the Indians from wearing of foreign clothes.

Khadi before independence was considered as the fabric for the political leaders and the rural people. But now it has found its way into the wardrobe of fashion conscious people. The current situation is that the demand is more than the supply. Earlier the type of khadi available was khadi cotton which had very coarse texture and feel. However many varieties of khadi like khadi silk, khadi wool and khadi cotton are available now, which makes it a fashionable fabric and likeable by the masses.

Its concept was developed by Mahatma Gandhi. It was a symbol for political agendas during the fight for independence in India against the British rule. It was primarily a means to provide employment to the unemployed rural population of India at that time. The Indian flag has to be also made from khadi material. Thus it holds national importance, we could even call it the national fabric of India.

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Choosing the Automated Parking System that is Right for You

5When choosing an automated parking system it makes sense to assess your needs and budget to make sure that you can get something that is truly compatible and will have a fair return on investment, otherwise it does not make much sense. Perhaps you have seen the double stacker lifts where one car is raised up and the second car parks underneath? This is one option and generally can double your parking spaces if you have a flat indoor lot.

Indeed these simple systems are a lot less costly than building a two-story parking garage out of cement and steel, which could easily run you in the millions of dollars before the project is completed. Steel and concrete are not cheap and you will need permits, architects and hire a construction company too, or hire a company, which can do it all for you, thus it could take 1-2 years until it is completed. Meanwhile, you still have the problem. Double stackers or Duplex lifts make sense for this reason.

These systems are fairly reliable and can be installed in a matter of weeks for the whole parking lot. No, they are not exactly cheap and run about as much each as an inexpensive auto maintenance garage lift. Most of these lifts can lift 5,000 plus pounds and it of course makes sense to lift the smaller cars; Hondas and Toyotas and Mini-Coopers on the lift and leave the bigger SUVs on the ground.

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The Basic Human Equation

4From my earliest days of childhood there has existed the notion that someday automation would make human beings obsolete. Computers have made millions of jobs extinct; companies with say thousands of employees would require a corresponding sized bookkeeping department. However with computer automation the number of employees has no relationship with the number of book keeping employees. John Deere for example has an engine factory that is almost completely automated, a human programs the machine and loads the engine blocks onto the line. As the engine blocks move down the line the computer gives instructions and low paid humans visually inspect the machines performance for quality control, the humans have become the robots and the robots the workers.

An American utility contractor working in Mexico explained to his Mexican foreman where they needed a hole dug for the new sewer line. The next day the American found a gang of twenty laborers digging the required hole, incredulous he exclaimed get a backhoe out here and you can have that done in twenty minutes! The foreman explained that a backhoe would cost a hundred and fifty dollars and the laborers earned five dollars a day and without the work their families would go hungry. This is the crux of what we face having the capability to do away with most of the labor force on the planet. Do we now spout slogans and jargon about being universally competitive? Do they move on to another planet to look for work? Are we no longer our brother’s keeper?

From the dawn of time humans banded together in groups for their own survival and prosperity, this commitment predates writing. There are no founding documents or spoken covenant expressing this mutual contract it is part of our humanity, a component of who we are. As our societies advanced and we adopted rulers either because of their military prowess or organizational abilities, the mutual covenant arose. The leader or leaders would provide leadership and protection to their subjects and the subjects for their part would supply the labor or military service to the leadership. It was expressly a codependent relationship; neither side could or would prosper without the other.

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The Parking Lot Sweeper

22There are a few types of parking lot sweepers on the market today. They are the walk behind, the ride on and the sweeper that is part of a truck. All of these cost a lot of money and represent a large investment by anyone or any company. If the sweeping business is a sole proprietorship then most likely he or she will have a walk behind or ride on model. The large sweeper truck is only for the large operation that can afford such an investment.

Due to the costs of these machines, owners should take great care in selecting the right parking lot sweeper for their business. Keeping the parking lots and sidewalks clean from all the dirt, sand and gravel is important because it makes them safer areas. It also creates a positive image for the people who use those services. The bottom line is that a clean area reduces the opportunity for risk and increases the possibility of potential new business.

An option business owners have is that rather than purchasing a parking lot sweeper they could rent one or hire a company to do the work. If you own the machine yourself, you do have the control over when the work is done. That does not always happen if you hire a contractor to do the work.

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Do You Need A Wheelchair Lift

3Are you a person stuck in a wheelchair who wants to have greater mobility? Are you a caregiver who wants to make your work easier? Then maybe you should consider getting a wheelchair lift.

Wheelchair lifts are increasingly becoming popular. This is mainly because they can really increase the mobility of handicap individuals. Wheelchair lifts are definitely advisable for people who have difficulty moving around in different places.

Another great thing about wheelchair nowadays is that they come at a reasonable cost, believe it or not. So there really is no reason not to get wheelchair lifts.

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